Tattoos are strongly empirically associated with deviance, personality disorders and criminality.[73][74] Although the general acceptance of tattoos is on the rise in Western society, they still carry a heavy stigma among certain social groups.[citation needed] Tattoos are generally considered an important part of the culture of the Russian mafia.[75]
The word tattoo, or tattow in the 18th century, is a loanword from the Samoan word tatau, meaning "to strike".[1][2] The Oxford English Dictionary gives the etymology of tattoo as "In 18th c. tattaow, tattow. From Polynesian (Samoan, Tahitian, Tongan, etc.) tatau. In Marquesan, tatu." Before the importation of the Polynesian word, the practice of tattooing had been described in the West as painting, scarring or staining.[3]